How to Create Loops In Go?

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Loops in Go are used to repeatedly execute a block of code based on certain conditions. Go provides three types of loops: for loop, while loop, and infinite loop.

  1. For Loop: The for loop repeatedly executes a block of code until a specified condition is true. It can be used in various forms:
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for initialization; condition; increment {
    // code to be executed
}


Here, the initialization statement is executed once at the beginning, then the condition is evaluated. If the condition is true, the code block is executed and the increment statement is executed. This process continues until the condition becomes false.

  1. While Loop: Go does not have a specific while loop construct, but the same functionality can be achieved using a for loop without the initialization and increment statements. The while loop can be written as follows:
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for condition {
    // code to be executed
}


In this case, the loop will execute as long as the condition remains true.

  1. Infinite Loop: An infinite loop is a loop that continues to execute indefinitely until explicitly stopped. It can be created using the for loop without any conditions:
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for {
    // code to be executed
}


In this case, the loop will run indefinitely until it encounters a break statement or the program is terminated.


These are the main types of loops in Go. Loops are powerful constructs that allow you to iterate over collections, perform repetitive tasks, and control the flow of your program based on conditions.

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What is the purpose of a loop with break and continue statements in Go?

In Go, a loop with break and continue statements allows programmers to control the flow of the loop execution and manipulate how the loop operates.

  1. The break statement is used to terminate the loop prematurely. When encountered, the break statement immediately exits the loop, regardless of the loop condition. This is useful when a certain condition occurs, and the loop needs to be stopped before its usual termination.
  2. The continue statement is used to skip the current iteration of the loop and move to the next iteration. When encountered, the continue statement jumps to the next iteration without executing any further code within the loop body. This is useful when a certain condition occurs, and the current iteration needs to be abandoned without affecting the loop itself.


These statements provide more control and flexibility over loop execution, allowing programmers to create more complex and specific looping behaviors based on different conditions and requirements.


How to use a loop to calculate factorials in Go?

In Go, you can use a for loop to calculate factorials. Here's an example of how to do it:

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package main

import "fmt"

func factorial(n int) int {
    result := 1
    for i := 1; i <= n; i++ {
        result *= i
    }
    return result
}

func main() {
    n := 5
    fmt.Printf("Factorial of %d is %d\n", n, factorial(n))
}


In the code above, we define a factorial function that takes an integer n as a parameter and returns its factorial. We initialize a variable result with the value 1, which will store the factorial result.


We then use a for loop to iterate from 1 to n and multiply the result by the current number in each iteration. Finally, we return the result.


In the main function, we define a variable n with the value 5 and call the factorial function with n as an argument. We then print the result using fmt.Printf. The output will be:

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Factorial of 5 is 120


You can modify the code and assign a different value to n to calculate the factorial of other numbers.


What is a range-based loop and how to create one in Go?

In Go, a range-based loop is used to iterate over elements in a collection such as an array, slice, string, map, or channel. It simplifies the process of iterating over the elements and provides a concise syntax.


To create a range-based loop in Go, you can use the range keyword followed by the collection you want to iterate over. The range expression returns two values: the index and the value of the current element.


Here's an example of a range-based loop iterating over an array:

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arr := [3]int{1, 2, 3}

for index, value := range arr {
    fmt.Printf("Index: %d, Value: %d\n", index, value)
}


Output:

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Index: 0, Value: 1
Index: 1, Value: 2
Index: 2, Value: 3


Similarly, you can use the range-based loop with other collections such as slices, strings, maps, or channels. Just replace arr with the collection you want to iterate over.


How to break out of nested loops using labeled break statements in Go?

In Go, you can break out of nested loops using labeled break statements. Here's how you can do it:

  1. Start by assigning a label to the outer loop using the label before the loop syntax. For example, outerLoop: for { ... }.
  2. Inside the inner loop, use the labeled break statement to break out of the outer loop. For example, break outerLoop.


Here's an example that illustrates the usage of labeled break statements to break out of nested loops:

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package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
	outerLoop:
		for i := 1; i <= 3; i++ {
			for j := 1; j <= 3; j++ {
				fmt.Printf("i = %d, j = %d\n", i, j)
				if i == 2 && j == 2 {
					break outerLoop
				}
			}
		}
}


In this example, we have an outer loop that iterates over the values 1 to 3 (inclusive), and an inner loop that also iterates over the values 1 to 3 (inclusive). When i and j are both equal to 2, the labeled break outerLoop statement is executed, causing the program to break out of both loops.


The output of this program will be:

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i = 1, j = 1
i = 1, j = 2
i = 1, j = 3
i = 2, j = 1


As you can see, the iteration stops when i is 2 and j is 2, and the program breaks out of both loops using the labeled break statement.

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